Pacification

Villa commanding his Division del Norte, and Carranza with his army easily defeated Huerta who fled to exile. Once the head of government, Carranza didn't want to recognize the Division del Norte as an official army neither Villa as a General thus th

Villa commanding his Division del Norte, and Carranza with his army easily defeated Huerta who fled to exile. Once the head of government, Carranza didn't want to recognize the Division del Norte as an official army neither Villa as a General thus they broke relations. Trying to subdue Villa, Carranza called a National Convention but Villa declared himself against Carranza and took over Mexico City with his friend Emiliano Zapata.

Recognizing in Carranza a more "civilized" governor, U.S. government ceased the armaments support to Villa┬┤s gangs and started helping Carranza. He and his General Obregon, achieved to dismantle the Division del Norte in famous Battle of Celaya. As a result of the National Congress, Carranza's head office composed and published a new Constitution in 1917, including some of the social oriented postulates of the Mexican Revolution.

Fortunately and unfortunately for Carranza, General Obregon was a brilliant strategist that didn't stop resources to bring peace to the country and not only got rid of Villa, he also got rid of Carranza in order to be president in 1920. Obregon became a skillful politician as well that created Union, practiced clever social politics and created the basics for a political party that was to be synonym of governability.

In 1924 he promoted a Constitution reform that would allow him to serve a second term, with fatal consequences: he was murdered. His Interior Affairs Secretary, Plutarco Elias Calles, succeeded him after a made-up election that became customary in the party he founded in 1929. Among other things, Calles created the Bank of Mexico and enforced laws contained in the Constitution that limited legal participation to priests. This action led to the Cristera War in 1926.

These laws forbid worship outside temples and priests to own real estate. Calles wanted to create a National Church and break off with the Vatican City. Although he didn't achieve it, his radical position and some unfortunate declarations from the Archbishop provoked the break off between the State and the Church in force til 1992.